Friday, January 25, 2008

Harriet Tubman

TITLE: [Harriet Tubman, full-length portrait, seated in chair, facing front, probably at her home in Auburn, New York], CALL NUMBER: Illus. in JK1881 .N357 sec. 16, No. 9 NAWSA Coll [Rare Book RR], REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-DIG-ppmsca-02909 (scan from color copy photo in Publishing Office), No known restrictions on publication. MEDIUM: 1 photographic print. CREATED, PUBLISHED: [1911]

Digital ID: ppmsca 02909 Source: scan from color copy photo in Publishing Office Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-02909 (scan from color copy photo in Publishing Office) Repository: Library of Congress Rare Book and Special Collections Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

NOTES: Illus. in: Scrapbooks of Elizabeth Smith Miller and Anne Fitzhugh Miller / Elizabeth Smith Miller. New York : Geneva, 1897-1911, section 16, no. 9, p. 47. National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection (Library of Congress).

Published in: American women : a Library of Congress guide for the study of women's history and culture in the United States / edited by Sheridan Harvey ... [et al.]. Washington : Library of Congress, 2001, p. 417.

Harriet TubmanRetrieve higher resolution JPEG version (166 kilobytes)

MARC Record Line 540 - No known restrictions on publication.

REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Rare Book and Special Collections Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA , DIGITAL ID: (scan from color copy photo in Publishing Office) ppmsca 02909, CARD #: 2002716779

Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published works before 1923 are now in the public domain.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, LC-DIG-ppmsca-02909]

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross, c. 1820 – 10 March 1913) was an African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, and Union spy during the U.S. Civil War. After escaping from captivity, she made thirteen missions to rescue over three hundred slaves using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. She later helped John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era struggled for women's suffrage.

Born into slavery in Dorchester County, Maryland, Tubman was beaten and whipped by her various owners as a child. Early in her life, she suffered a traumatic head wound when an irate slave owner threw a heavy metal weight at her, intending to hit another slave. The injury caused disabling seizures, headaches, and powerful visionary and dream activity, and spells of hypersomnia which occurred throughout her entire life. A devout Christian, she ascribed her visions and vivid dreams to premonitions from God.

In 1849, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia, then immediately returned to Maryland to rescue her family. Slowly, one group at a time, she brought relatives with her out of the state, and eventually guided dozens of other slaves to freedom. Traveling by night and in extreme secrecy, Tubman (or "Moses", as she was called) "never lost a passenger". Heavy rewards were offered for many of the people she helped bring away, but no one ever knew it was Harriet Tubman who was helping them. When a far-reaching United States Fugitive Slave Law was passed in 1850, she helped guide fugitives further north into Canada, and helped newly-freed slaves find work.

When the U.S. Revolutionary War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy. The first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war, she guided the raid on the Combahee River, which liberated more than seven hundred slaves. After the war, she retired to the family home in Auburn, New York, where she cared for her aging parents. She was active in the women's suffrage movement until illness overtook her and she had to be admitted to a home for elderly African-Americans she had helped open years earlier. After she died in 1913, she became an icon of American courage and freedom.

Harriet Tubman was born Araminta "Minty" Ross to slave parents, Harriet ("Rit") Green and Ben Ross. Rit was owned by Mary Pattison Brodess (and later her son Edward), while Ben was legally owned by Mary's second husband, Anthony Thompson, who ran a large plantation near the Blackwater River in Dorchester County, Maryland. As with many slaves in the United States, neither the exact year nor place of her birth was recorded, and historians differ as to the best estimate. Kate Larson records the year 1822, based on a midwife payment and several other historical documents while Jean Humez says "the best current evidence suggests that Tubman was born in 1820, but it might have been a year or two later." Catherine Clinton notes that Tubman herself reported the year of her birth as 1825, while her death certificate lists 1815 and her gravestone lists 1820. In her Civil War widow's pension record, Tubman claimed she was born in 1820, 1822, and 1825, an indication, perhaps, that she had no idea when she was born.

Modesty, Tubman's maternal grandmother, arrived in the US on a slave ship from Africa; no information is available about her other ancestors. As a child, Tubman was told that she was of Ashanti lineage (from what is now Ghana), though no evidence exists to confirm or deny this assertion. Her mother Rit (who may have been the child of a white man) was a cook for the Brodess family. Her father Ben was a skilled woodsman who managed the timber work on the plantation. They married around 1808, and according to court records, they had nine children together: Linah, born in 1808, Mariah Ritty in 1811, Soph in 1813, Robert in 1816, Minty (Harriet) in 1822, Ben in 1823, Rachel in 1825, Henry in 1830, and Moses in 1832.

Rit struggled to keep their family together as slavery tried to tear it apart. Edward Brodess sold three of her daughters (Linah, Mariah Ritty, and Soph), separating them from the family forever. When a trader from Georgia approached Brodess about buying Rit's youngest son Moses, she hid him for a month, aided by other slaves and free blacks in the community. At one point she even confronted her owner about the sale. Finally, Brodess and "the Georgia man" came toward the slave quarters to seize the child, where Rit told them: "You are after my son; but the first man that comes into my house, I will split his head open." Brodess backed away and abandoned the sale. Tubman's biographers agree that tales of this event in the family's history influenced her belief in the possibilities of resistance.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article, Harriet Tubman

Republican debate Boca Raton, Florida 01/24/08 VIDEO and MINI (BMW) parallel Mini Coopers and Washington University, 2 industries, team to clean up mercury emissions or Booker T. Washington

Thursday, January 24, 2008

Booker T. Washington

TITLE: [Booker T. Washington, half-length portrait, seated at desk, facing right], CALL NUMBER: LOT 13164-A, no. 10 [P and P], REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-119898 (b and w film copy neg.)LC-USZ62-36291 (b and w film copy neg.)

Digital ID: cph 3c19898 Source: b and w film copy neg. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-119898 (b&w film copy neg.) , LC-USZ62-36291 (b and w film copy neg.) Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA Retrieve higher resolution JPEG version (86 kilobytes)

January 15, 1901, Republican Booker T. Washington protests Alabama Democratic Party’s refusal to permit voting by African-Americans. Freedom Calendar 01/14/06 - 01/21/06

MEDIUM: 1 photographic print. CREATED/PUBLISHED: [between 1890 and 1910], NOTES: Booker T. Washington Collection (Library of Congress).

REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA.

Booker T. WashingtonCredit Line: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, [reproduction number, LC-USZ62-119898]

DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3c19898, (b and w film copy neg. LC-USZ62-36291) cph 3a36702, VIDEO FRAME ID: LCPP003A-36702 (from b and w film copy neg. LC-USZ62-36291), CARD #: 98500608

Works published prior to 1978 (THIS IMAGE) were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published works before 1923 are now in the public domain.

Booker T. Washington

Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. He was freed from slavery as a child, gained an education, and as a young man was appointed to lead a teachers' college for blacks. From this position of leadership he rose into a nationally prominent role as spokesman for African Americans.

Washington was born into slavery to a white father, about whom he knew little, and a black slave mother on a rural farm in southwest Virginia. This made him mixed race as are, to one degree or another (as a result of the chattel legacy), many African Americans; yet the so-called "one drop rule" ensured that he grew up in the social category of Negro. He was freed in 1865 at the end of the Civil War by the Thirteenth Amendment. After working in saltfurnaces and coalmines in West Virginia for several years, he made his way east to a school which became Hampton University. There, he worked his way through, later attending Wayland Seminary to return as an instructor. In 1881, he was recommended by Hampton president Samuel C. Armstrong to become the first leader of the new normal school (teachers' college) which became Tuskegee University in Alabama, where he served the rest of his life.

Washington was the dominant figure in the African American community in the United States from 1890 to 1915, especially after he achieved prominence for his Atlanta Address of 1895. To many politicians and the public in general, he was seen as a popular spokesperson for African American citizens. Representing the last generation of black leaders born into slavery, he was generally perceived as a credible proponent of educational improvements for those freedmen who had remained in the post-Reconstruction, Jim Crow South. Throughout the final 20 years of his life, he maintained this standing through a nationwide network of core supporters in many communities, including black educators, ministers, editors and businessmen, especially those who were liberal-thinking on social and educational issues. He gained access to top national leaders in politics, philanthropy and education, and was awarded honorary degrees. Critics called his network of supporters the "Tuskegee Machine."

Late in his career, Washington was criticized by the leaders of the NAACP, which was formed in 1909, especially W.E.B. Du Bois, who demanded a harder line on civil rights protests. After being labeled "The Great Accommodator" by Du Bois, Washington replied that confrontation would lead to disaster for the outnumbered blacks, and that cooperation with supportive whites was the only way to overcome pervasive racism in the long run. Although he did some aggressive civil rights work secretively, such as funding court cases, he seemed to truly believe in skillful accommodation to many of the social realities of the age of segregation. While apparently resigned to many undesirable social conditions in the short term, he also clearly had his eyes on a better future for blacks. Through his own personal experience, Washington knew that good education was a major and powerful tool for individuals to collectively accomplish that better future.

Washington's philosophy and tireless work on education issues helped him enlist both the moral and substantial financial support of many philanthropists. He became friends with such self-made men from modest beginnings as Standard Oil magnate Henry Huttleston Rogers and Sears, Roebuck and Company President Julius Rosenwald. These individuals and many other wealthy men and women funded his causes, such as supporting the institutions of higher education at Hampton and Tuskegee. Each school was originally founded to produce teachers. However, graduates had often gone back to their local communities only to find precious few schools and educational resources to work with in the largely impoverished South. To address those needs, through provision of millions of dollars and innovative matching funds programs, Washington and his philanthropic network stimulated local community contributions to build small community schools. Together, these efforts eventually established and operated over 5,000 schools and supporting resources for the betterment of blacks throughout the South in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The local schools were a source of much community pride and were of priceless value to African-American families during those troubled times in public education. This work was a major part of his legacy and was continued (and expanded through the Rosenwald Fund and others) for many years after Washington's death in 1915.

Washington did much to improve the overall friendship and working relationship between the races in the United States. His autobiography, Up From Slavery, first published in 1901, is still widely read today.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article, Booker T. Washington

Wednesday, January 23, 2008

George Washington Carver

"George Washington Carver was born about sixty years ago of slave parents on the Missouri farm of Moses Carver (whose name, after the fashion of slaves, the mother of the son bore). Carver's earliest recollections were the death of his father and the stealing of himself and his mother by a band of raiders in the last year of the Civil War. Moses Carver, whom George W. Carver remembers as his kindly master, sent a rescuing party on horseback liberally provided with funds to buy their release, but when the searchers overtook the marauders in Arkansas, Mary Carver, the mother, had disappeared and was never again heard from. Little George was found grievously ill with whooping cough. A race horse valued at $300 was given in exchange for him and he was returned to the Missouri farm where he was reared by his master.

Like Booker T. Washington, Carver became the rich possessor of one book, an old blue-backed speller. This he soon learned by heart, as he mastered his letters; but opportunity did not seek him out. He was forced to accept the limitations of the spelling book until he was ten years old, at which time he found his way to a Negro school eight miles away. Lodging in the cabins of friendly Negroes, sleeping in open fields or in a hospitable stable, he continued his studies for a year, keeping ever close to the soil. After graduating from this school, he set out toward Kansas, "the home of the free." A mule team overtook him a day's journey out and took him into Fort Scott where his definite schooling was begun. For nine years he worked as a domestic servant, studying day and night as his employment permitted. He specialized in laundry work and when he next moved forward he was able by the careful management and utmost frugality to complete a high-school course at Minneapolis, Kan.

After graduating from high school, Carver entered Iowa State College. Along with his studies here much of his time was given over to the management of a laundry out of which he earned enough money to meet his school expenses. Completing the work for his Bachelor's and Master's degrees, he was graduated and made a member of the faculty in charge of the greenhouse, the bacteriological laboratory, and the department of systematic botany."

In spite of handicaps: brief biographical sketches with discussion outlines of outstanding Negroes now living who are achieving distinction in various lines of endeavor by R. W. Bullock

TITLE: [George Washington Carver, full-length portrait, seated on steps (bottom center), facing front, with staff], CALL NUMBER: LOT 13164-C, no. 103 [P&P]

REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-DIG-ppmsca-05633 (digital file from modern print), No known restrictions on publication.

Digital ID: ppmsca 05633 Source: digital file from modern b&w print Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-05633 (digital file from modern print) Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA Retrieve higher resolution JPEG version (147 kilobytes)

MEDIUM: 1 photographic print. CREATED, PUBLISHED: [ca. 1902], CREATOR: Johnston, Frances Benjamin, 1864-1952, photographer.

NOTES: Title devised by Library staff. Reference copy (modern print) in BIOG FILE - Carver, George Washington. Forms part of: Booker T. Washington Collection (Library of Congress). Original negative may be available: LC-J694-159.
george washington carverWorks published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published works before 1923 (THIS IMAGE) are now in the public domain.
PART OF: Visual materials from the Booker T. Washington papers. REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. DIGITAL ID: (digital file from modern b&w print) ppmsca 05633, CARD #: 2004671560

MARC Record Line 540 - No known restrictions on publication.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, LC-DIG-ppmsca-05633]

George Washington Carver

George Washington Carver (July 12, 1864 – January 5, 1943) was an American botanical researcher and agronomy educator who worked in agricultural extension at the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama, teaching former slaves farming techniques for self-sufficiency.

To bring education to farmers, Carver designed a mobile school. It was called a Jesup Wagon after the New York financier, Morris Ketchum Jesup, who provided funding. In 1921, Carver spoke in favor of a peanut tariff before the House Ways and Means Committee. Given racial discrimination of the time, it was unusual for an African-American to be called as an expert. Carver's well-received testimony earned him national attention, and he became an unofficial spokesman for the peanut industry. Carver wrote 44 practical agricultural bulletins for farmers.

In the post-Civil-War South, an agricultural monoculture of cotton had depleted the soil, and in the early 1900s, the boll weevil destroyed much of the cotton crop. Much of Carver's fame was based on his research and promotion of alternative crops to cotton, such as peanuts and sweet potatoes. He wanted poor farmers to grow alternative crops as both a source of their own food and a cash crop. His most popular bulletin contained 105 existing food recipes that used peanuts. His most famous method of promoting the peanut involved his creation of about 100 existing industrial products from peanuts, including cosmetics, dyes, paints, plastics, gasoline and nitroglycerin. His industrial products from peanuts excited the public imagination but none was a successful commercial product. There are many myths about Carver, especially the myth that his industrial products from peanuts played a major role in revolutionizing Southern agriculture.

Carver's most important accomplishments were in areas other than industrial products from peanuts, including agricultural extension education, improvement of racial relations, mentoring children, poetry, painting, religion, advocacy of sustainable agriculture and appreciation of plants and nature. He served as a valuable role model for African-Americans and an example of the importance of hard work, a positive attitude and a good education. His humility, humanitarianism, good nature, frugality and lack of economic materialism have also been widely admired.

One of his most important roles was that the fame of his achievements and many talents undermined the widespread stereotype of the time that the black race was intellectually inferior to the white race. In 1941, "Time" magazine dubbed him a "Black Leonardo," a reference to the white polymath Leonardo da Vinci.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article, George Washington Carver

The Federal Open Market Committee lowers funds rate 75 basis points and 125th St. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Feeling the Heat: Berkeley Researchers Make Thermoelectric Breakthrough in Silicon Nanowires or Jack Johnson Heavyweight Champion of the World

Tuesday, January 22, 2008

Jack Johnson Heavyweight Champion of the World

Jack Johnson Heavyweight Champion of the WorldTITLE: Jack Johnson / D.W.A. photo. CALL NUMBER: LOT 10816 [P and P] Check for an online group record (may link to related items), REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ6-1823 (b and w film copy neg.)No known restrictions on publication.,

SUMMARY: Jack Johnson, boxer, full-length portrait, standing in ring, facing slightly right., MEDIUM: 1 photographic print., CREATED/PUBLISHED: [between 1910 and 1915]

SUBJECTS: Johnson, Jack, 1878-1946. and Boxers (Sports)--1910-1920., DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3d01823 CARD #: 93501352
Digital ID: cph 3d01823 Source: b&w film copy neg. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ6-1823 (b&w film copy neg.) Retrieve higher resolution JPEG version (112 kilobytes)

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division [reproduction number, LC-USZ6-1823]

MARC Record Line 540 - No known restrictions on publication.

Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published works before 1923 are now in the public domain.

Jack Johnson (boxer) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Arthur Johnson (March 31, 1878 – June 10, 1946), better known as Jack Johnson and nicknamed the “Galveston Giant”, was an American boxer and arguably the best heavyweight of his generation. He was the first black Heavyweight Champion of the World (1908-1915), a feat which, for its time, was tremendously controversial. In a documentary about his life, Ken Burns said: “For more than thirteen years, Jack Johnson was the most famous, and the most notorious African-American on Earth

Jack Johnson was born in Galveston, Texas as the second child and first son of Henry and Tina “Tiny” Johnson, former slaves and faithful Methodists, who both worked blue-collar jobs to earn enough to raise six children (the Johnsons had nine children, five of whom lived to adulthood, and an adopted son) and taught them how to read and write. Jack Johnson had five years of formal education. He was later kicked out of church when he stated that God did not exist and that the church was a domination over people's lives.[citation needed]

Johnson fought his first bout, a 16-round victory, at age 15. He turned professional around 1897, fighting in private clubs and making more money than he had ever seen. In 1901, Joe Choynski, the small Jewish heavyweight, came to Galveston to train Jack Johnson. Choynski, an experienced boxer, knocked Johnson out in round three, and the two were arrested for "engaging in an illegal contest" and put in jail for 23 days. (Although boxing was one of the three most popular sports in America at the time, along with baseball and horse-racing, the practice was officially illegal in most states, including Texas.) Choynski began training Johnson in jail but did not get arrested.

Johnson's fighting style was very distinctive. He developed a more patient approach than was customary in that day: playing defensively, waiting for a mistake, and then capitalizing on it. Johnson always began a bout cautiously, slowly building up over the rounds into a more aggressive fighter. He often fought to punish his opponents rather than knock them out, endlessly avoiding their blows and striking with swift counters. He always gave the impression of having much more to offer and, if pushed, he could punch quite powerfully. Johnson's style was very effective, but it was criticized in the white press as being cowardly and devious. In contrast, World Heavyweight Champion "Gentleman" Jim Corbett, who was white, had used many of the same techniques a decade earlier, and was praised by the white press as "the cleverest man in boxing."

By 1902, Johnson had won at least 50 fights against both white and black opponents. Johnson won his first title on February 3, 1903, beating "Denver" Ed Martin over 20 rounds for the World Colored Heavyweight Championship. His efforts to win the full title were thwarted as World Heavyweight Champion James J. Jeffries refused to face him. Blacks could box whites in other arenas, but the heavyweight championship was such a respected and coveted position in America that blacks were not deemed worthy to compete for it. Johnson was, however, able to fight former champion Bob Fitzsimmons in July 1907, and knocked him out in two rounds.

He eventually won the World Heavyweight Title on December 26, 1908, when he fought the Canadian world champion Tommy Burns in Sydney, Australia, after following him all over the world, taunting him in the press for a match. The fight lasted fourteen rounds before being stopped by the police in front of over 20,000 spectators. The title was awarded to Johnson on a referee's decision as a T.K.O, but he had severely beaten the champion. During the fight, Johnson had mocked both Burns and his ringside crew. Every time Burns was about to go down, Johnson would hold him up again, punishing him more. The camera was stopped just as Johnson was finishing off Burns, so as not to show Burns' defeat.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article, Jack Johnson (boxer)

Technorati tags: and President Visits Martin Luther King, Jr., Memorial Library VIDEO PODCAST and Ebenezer Baptist Church and Nanotechnology innovation may revolutionize gene detection in a single cell

Monday, January 21, 2008

Ebenezer Baptist Church

Ownership: Information presented on this website, (THIS IMAGE) unless otherwise indicated , is considered in the public domain. It may may be distributed or copied as is permitted by the law. Martin Luther King Jr National Historic Site>

Throughout its long history, Ebenezer Baptist Church has been a spiritual home to many citizens of the "Sweet Auburn" community.

Its most famous member, Martin Luther King, Jr., was baptized as a child in the church. After giving a trial sermon to the congregation at Ebenezer at the age of 19 Martin was ordained as a minister. In 1960 Dr. King, Jr. became a co-pastor of Ebenezer with his father, "Daddy" King. He remained in that position until his death in 1968. As a final farewell to his spiritual home Dr. King, Jr.'s funeral was held in the church.

Ebenezer Baptist ChurchIn 2000 a study of the church building resulted in "Ebenezer Baptist Church, Historic Structure Report" being issued by the National Park Service. This reports serves as a guideline for the restoration of the church.


In 2001, thanks to a Save America's Treasures Grant and the contributions of many individuals and corporations, the National Park Service began the restoration of historic Ebenezer Baptist Church. The restoration will be completed in two phases.
Phase I included design and installation of major systems including, electrical, heating and air conditioning, and fire suppression. Structural repairs were made to the roof system and the historic exterior Ebenezer sign was repaired and lit for the first time since 1990. A chair lift was installed to provide accessibility to the sanctuary. The funding for Phase I involved a private and public partnership and cost $1,885,000.

Phase II of the project will restore the appearance of the sanctuary and fellowship hall to the 1960-68 period when Dr. King served as co-pastor with his father.

Special work items include preservation of stain glass windows; restoration/replication of furnishings; repair of balcony structural system; rehabilitation of restrooms; abatement of asbestos-containing flooring; treatment of termite infestation/damage; installation of a lightning protection system; improvement of site drainage; and restoration of a sidewalk, baptistery, and pipe organ and its antiphonal.

A scheduled date for Phase II has yet to be determined. Historic Ebenezer Baptist Church to Close for Repairs


Saturday, January 19, 2008

Martin Luther King jr.

Martin Luther King jr.TITLE: [Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., half-length portrait, facing front] / World Telegram & Sun photo by Dick DeMarsico. CALL NUMBER: NYWTS - BIOG--King, Martin L.--Religion [item] [P&P] REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-126559 (b&w film copy neg.)

RIGHTS INFORMATION: No copyright restriction known. Staff photographer reproduction rights transferred to Library of Congress through Instrument of Gift.

This Image is in the PUBLIC DOMAIN.
MEDIUM: 1 photographic print. CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1964. CREATOR: DeMarsico, Dick, photographer. NOTES: NYWT&S staff photograph. Forms part of: New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection (Library of Congress).

SUBJECTS: King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968. FORMAT: Portrait photographs 1960-1970. Photographic prints 1960-1970. PART OF: New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection (Library of Congress)

REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg.) cph CONTROL #: 00651714

Martin Luther King, Jr. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968), was one of the main leaders of the American civil rights movement. King was a Baptist minister, one of the few leadership roles available to black men at the time. He became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955 - 1956) and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957), serving as its first president. His efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. Here he raised public consciousness of the civil rights movement and established himself as one of the greatest orators in U.S. history. In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other non-violent means.

King's nonviolent philosophy contrasted with that of Malcolm X and other black activists who embraced violent resistance. He faced criticism not only from white racists but from violent black activists.

King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee. He was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Jimmy Carter in 1977. Martin Luther King Day was established as a national holiday in the United States in 1986. In 2004, King was posthumously awarded a Congressional Gold Medal.[

Martin Luther King, Jr., was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the son of Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King. Although Dr. King's name was mistakenly recorded as "Michael King" on his birth certificate, this was not discovered until 1934, when his father applied for a passport. He had an older sister, Willie Christine (September 11, 1927) and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel (July 30, 1930 – July 1, 1969).

King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind. He entered Morehouse College at age fifteen, skipping his ninth and twelfth high school grades without formally graduating.

In 1948, he graduated from Morehouse with a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in sociology, and enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, and graduated with a Bachelor of Divinity (B.D.) degree in 1951. In September 1951, King began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University and received his Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) on June 5, 1955.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article, Martin Luther King, Jr.

Friday, January 18, 2008

Frederick Douglass

ARC Identifier: 558770. Local Identifier: FL-FL-22. Title: Frederick Douglass, ca. 1879. Creator: Legg, Frank W. ( Most Recent) Type of Archival Materials: Photographs and other Graphic Materials.


Location: Still Picture Records LICON, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS-S), National Archives at College Park, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001

PHONE: 301-837-3530, FAX: 301-837-3621, EMAIL: Production Date: ca. 1879. Part of: Series: Portraits, 1862 - 1884. High Resolution Image‎ (2,089 × 3,000 pixels, file size: 1.11 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

Access Restrictions: Unrestricted. Use Restrictions: Unrestricted.

General Note: Use War and Conflict Number 113 when ordering a reproduction or requesting information about this image. Variant Control Number(s): NAIL Control Number: NWDNS-200-FL-22. NAIL Control Number: NWDNS-FL-FL-22.

Frederick DouglassCopy 1 Copy Status: Preservation-Reproduction. Storage Facility: National Archives at College Park - Archives II (College Park, MD). Media Media Type: Negative.

Index Terms Contributors to Authorship and/or Production of the Archival Materials. Warren, George K., Photographer.

The Life of Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass was born into slavery on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in 1818, and was given the name Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey (Baly), after his mother Harriet Bailey. During the course of his remarkable life he escaped from slavery, became internationally renowned for his eloquence in the cause of liberty, and went on to serve the national government in several official capacities. Through his work he came into contact with many of the leaders of his times. His early work in the cause of freedom brought him into contact with a wide array of abolitionists and social reformers, including William Lloyd Garrison, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, John Brown, Gerrit Smith and many others. As a major Stationmaster on the Underground Railroad he directly helped hundreds on their way to freedom through his adopted home city of Rochester, NY.

Renowned for his eloquence, he lectured throughout the US and England on the brutality and immorality of slavery. As a publisher his North Star and Frederick Douglass' Paper brought news of the anti-slavery movement to thousands. Forced to leave the country to avoid arrest after John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, he returned to become a staunch advocate of the Union cause. He helped recruit African American troops for the Union Army, and his personal relationship with Lincoln helped persuade the President to make emancipation a cause of the Civil War. Two of Douglass' sons served in the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, which was made up entirely of African American volunteers. The storming of Fort Wagner by this regiment was dramatically portrayed in the film Glory! A painting of this event hangs in the front hall at Cedar Hill.

All of Douglass' children were born of his marriage to Anna Murray. He met Murray, a free African American, in Baltimore while he was still held in slavery. They were married soon after his escape to freedom. After the death of his first wife, Douglass married his former secretary, Helen Pitts, of Rochester, NY. Douglass dismissed the controversy over his marriage to a white woman, saying that in his first marriage he had honored his mother's race, and in his second marriage, his father's.

In 1872, Douglass moved to Washington, DC where he initially served as publisher of the New National Era, which was intended to carry forward the work of elevating the position of African Americans in the post-Emancipation period. This enterprise was discontinued when the promised financial backing failed to materialize. In this period Douglass also served briefly as President of the Freedmen's National Bank, and subsequently in various national service positions, including US Marshal for the District of Columbia, and diplomatic positions in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Frederick Douglass National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)

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